Graphene ppt download

Content Introduction to graphene. Preparation and characterization graphene Potential application of graphene Conclusions. The rise of graphene. Nature Materials Vol. Introduction Properties of graphene - Electronic properties - Thermal properties - Mechanical properties - Optical properties - Relativistic charge carriers - Anomalous quantum Hall effect. Best electrical conductor of any known metal Commonly used in electrical wire applications due to very good conductivity and price compared to silver.

The unit for expressing the conductivity of nonmagnetic materials by testing using the eddy-current method. Generally used for temper and alloy verification of aluminium. Gold is commonly used in electrical contacts because it does not easily corrode. A representation of a diamond tip with a two nanometer radius indenting into a single atomic sheet of graphene Science, : Optical properties - Monolayer graphene absorbs 2.

graphene ppt download

The term graphene first appeared in to describe single sheets of graphite as one of the constituents of graphite intercalation compounds GICs. Larger graphene molecules or sheets so that they can be considered as true isolated 2D crystals cannot be grown even in principle. In the s, Landau and Peierls and Mermin, later showed thermodynamics prevented 2-d crystals in free state, an article in Physics Today reads: "Fundamental forces place seemingly insurmountable barriers in the way of creating [2D crystals] Nascent 2D crystallites try to minimize their surface energy and inevitably morph into one of the rich variety of stable 3D structures that occur in soot.

But there is a way around the problem.

graphene ppt download

Interactions with 3D structures stabilize 2D crystals during growth. So one can make 2D crystals sandwiched between or placed on top of the atomic planes of a bulk crystal. In that respect, graphene already exists within graphite One can then hope to fool Nature and extract single-atom-thick crystallites at a low enough temperature that they remain in the quenched state prescribed by the original higher-temperature 3D growth.

In Andre Geim and Kostya Novoselov at Manchester University managed to extract single-atom-thick crystallites graphene from bulk graphite: Pulled out graphene layers from graphite and transferred them onto thin silicon dioxide on a silicon wafer in a process sometimes called micromechanical cleavage or, simply, the Scotch tape technique.

Sincean explosion in the investigation of graphene in term of synthesis, characterization, properties as well as specifical potential application were reported. Preparation and characterization graphene Preparation methods Top-down approach From graphite - Micromechanical exfoliation of graphite Scotch tape or peel-off method - Creation of colloidal suspensions from graphite oxide or graphite intercalation compounds GICs.

Bottom up approach from carbon precursors - By chemical vapour deposition CVD of hydrocarbon - By epitaxial growth on electrically insulating surfaces such as SiC - Total Organic Synthesis. TEM images show the nucleation of c one, d three, or e four layers during the growth process.

Preparation methods and discussions Top-down approach From graphite Direct exfoliation of graphite Graphite intercalation compound Graphite oxide method. Direct exfoliation of graphite Micromechanical exfoliation of graphite Scotch tape or peel-off method. See below video. Dispersions of microcrystalline synthetic graphite have a concentration of 0.

Dispersions of expanded graphite and HOPG are less concentrated 0. Graphene sheets ionic-liquid-modified by electrochemistry using graphite electrodes.

Liu, N. One-step ionic-liquid-assisted electrochemical synthesis of ionicliquidfunctionalized graphene sheets directly from graphite. Tung, V. High-throughput solution processing of large-scale graphene.After you enable Flash, refresh this page and the presentation should play.

Get the plugin now. Toggle navigation. Help Preferences Sign up Log in. To view this presentation, you'll need to allow Flash. Click to allow Flash After you enable Flash, refresh this page and the presentation should play. View by Category Toggle navigation. Products Sold on our sister site CrystalGraphics. Title: Graphene: From fundamental. Tags: fundamental graphene. Latest Highest Rated. Preparation and characterization graphene Potential application of graphene Conclusions 3 Introduction to graphene Graphene is a one-atom-thick planar sheet of sp2-bonded carbon atoms that are densely packed in a honeycomb crystal lattice The name graphene comes from graphite -ene graphene High resolution transmission electron microscope images TEM of graphene Molecular structure of graphene 4 Introduction A.

Geim K. The rise of graphene. Nature Materials Vol. Larger graphene molecules or sheets so that they can be considered as true isolated 2D crystals cannot be grown even in principle. In the s, Landau and Peierls and Mermin, later showed thermodynamics prevented 2-d crystals in free state, an article in Physics Today reads "Fundamental forces place seemingly insurmountable barriers in the way of creating 2D crystals Nascent 2D crystallites try to minimize their surface energy and inevitably morph into one of the rich variety of stable 3D structures that occur in soot.

But there is a way around the problem. Interactions with 3D structures stabilize 2D crystals during growth.

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So one can make 2D crystals sandwiched between or placed on top of the atomic planes of a bulk crystal. In that respect, graphene already exists within graphiteCopy embed code:. Automatically changes to Flash or non-Flash embed. WordPress Embed Customize Embed. URL: Copy. Presentation Description Evolutionary material in micro-electronics. Adhav Presented by- Ms. Pabale Monica B.

Chaudhari Sanket S. Jadhav Nitin B. Bafna Abhishek S. Graphene is a flat monolayer of carbon atoms tightly packed into a two-dimensional 2D honeycomb structure ,which works on diffraction of electrons. The Nobel Prize in Physics for was awarded to Andre Geim and Konstantin Novoselov " for groundbreaking experiments regarding the two-dimensional material graphene ".

Carbon-the basis of all known life on the earth-has surprised the scientific community once again with its exotic properties. Researchers have found that a form of carbon called graphene makes experiments possible that give new twist to electronics field. It is the one-atom thick planar sheet of carbon atoms, which makes it the thinnest material ever discovered.

Carbon atoms in the sheet are densely packed in a two-dimensional 2D honeycomb crystal lattice. The carbon-carbon bond length in graphene is about 0. It can be wrapped up into 0D fullerences, rolled into 1D nanotubes or stacked into 3D graphite. It is almost completely transparent, yet so dense that not even helium can pass through it.

The theoretical mobility of electrons is times that of silicon. The charge storage time is less, so the operating frequency is high. The near-room temperature thermal conductivity of graphene was recently measured to be between 4. The breakover voltage is less than 0. Soit can replace current devices, such as CMOSand will give turning point to the electronics.

Doping of graphene is roughly divided into three categorie 1.

Graphene: From fundamental - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Graphene has 6 electrons, while silicon have 14 number of electrons. So it has Electron transfer is times faster than Silicon. Thermal conductivity of graphene was recently measured to be between 4.

Graphene has very small voltage gain typically, the amplitude of the output signal is about 40 times less than that of the input signal than silicon. Graphene has produced structures just 15 to 40 nanometers wide that conduct current with almost no resistance, while silicon has such structures at some micrometer wide only. Electrons in graphene move at an effective speed of light times less than the speed of light in a vacuum, allowing relativistic effects to be observed without using particle accelerators.

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It is hard to imagine something so small, but if you zoomed in so that a nanotube was as wide as one of your hairs, then your head would be about the width of Cayuga Lake! Whenever the needle hits a bump, the whole board moves up and down, and this deflection is measured by a laser. Using our AFM, we can determine how many nanotubes are connected between a pair of electrodes, and their diameters. Applications: Applications Graphene Transistors- Graphene exhibites a pronounced effect to perpendicular external electric fields, allowing us to build FETs.

Recently researchers have been able to create graphene transistors with an on-off ratio rate of GHz. IBM had developed top gated transistors on 0. T he fabricated graphene field-effect transistor. Slide Integrated Circuit- Graphene has the ideal properties to become an excellent component of integrated circuits.Toggle navigation. Help Preferences Sign up Log in. View by Category Toggle navigation.

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Graphene: From fundamental - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Graphene PowerPoint Templates & Google Slides Themes

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Synthesis, Properties, and Applications of Graphene

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Privacy Policy. See more.Last updated: March 21, I f the 20th century was the age of plasticsthe 21st century seems set to become the age of graphene —a recently discovered material made from honeycomb sheets of carbon just one atom thick. Science journals have been running out of superlatives for this wondrous stuff: it's just about the lightest, strongest, thinnest, best heat - and electricity - conducting material ever discovered.

And if we're to believe the hype, it promises to revolutionize everything from computing to car tires and solar cells to smoke detectors. What is this strange and remarkable new stuff? Let's take a closer look! Photo: A pencil like this is a wooden shaft filled with a stick of soft graphite, a type of carbon made from strongly bonded layers of atoms that are very weakly held together by van der Waals forces.

As you drag your pencil along the page, the thin layers of graphite shear off and stay behind, making the black line you can see. Now if you could shave off a super-thin layer of graphite, just one atom high, what you'd have would be graphene.

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There are tiny specks of graphene in any pencil mark like this, but since they're only one atom high, you'll be doing well to spot them! In school you probably learned that carbon comes in two basic but startlingly different forms or allotropesnamely graphite the soft, black stuff in pencil "leads" and diamond the super-hard, sparkly crystals in jewelry. The amazing thing is that both these radically different materials are made of identical carbon atoms.

So why is graphite different to diamond? The atoms inside the two materials are arranged in different ways, and this is what gives the two allotropes their completely different properties: graphite is black, dull, and relatively soft soft and hard pencils mix graphite with other materials to make darker or fainter lines ; diamond is transparent and the hardest natural material so far discovered.

If that's what you learned in school, you probably finished your studies quite a while ago, because in the last few years scientists have discovered various other carbon allotropes with even more interesting properties. There are fullerenes discovered in ; hollow cages of carbon atoms, including the so-called Buckyball, Buckminsterfullerenemade from a kind of football-shaped cage of 60 carbon atomsnanotubes discovered in ; flat sheets of carbon atoms curled into amazingly thin, hollow tubes one nanometer in diameter —and drum roll graphene discovered in So what exactly is graphene?

Peer inside lots of familiar solid materials including most metals and you'll find what's known as a crystal lattice another name for a solid's internal, crystalline structure : lots of atoms arranged in a regular, endlessly repeating, three-dimensional structure a bit like an atomic climbing frame, only instead of bars there are invisible bonds between the atoms that hold them together.

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Diamond and graphite both have a three-dimensional structure, though it's completely different: in diamond, the atoms are tightly bonded in three-dimensional tetrahedrons, whereas in graphite, atoms are bonded tightly in two-dimensional layers, which are held to the layers above and below by relatively weak forces. Artworks: 1 Diamond has a strong 3D three-dimensional crystal lattice based on a repeating tetrahedron left.

The red blobs are the carbon atoms and the gray lines are the bonds that join them together.A modern material with unique physical and electrical properties that could reshape our future. Introduction to Graphene. Up to X stronger than the equivalent weight of steel. Out conducts copper by a thousand times. M announced that it had built the first integrated circuit for wireless devices.

Energy storage cont. Small flakes are what we use to test usually. Thank You Grazie Ragrazie.

graphene ppt download

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